Ultrasonic-assisted Method for Preparation of Cu-doped ZnS Nanoparticles in Water as a Highly Efficient Visible Light Photocatalyst

Document Type: Regular Article

Authors

1 Faculty member

2 phd student

3 M.Sc. in Physical Chemistry

Abstract

Ultrasonic-assisted method was applied for preparation of Cu+2-doped ZnS nanoparticles (mole fractions of Cu+2 ions are 0.000, 0.015, 0.030 and 0.060) in water as a template-free and green method at 30 min. The prepared nanoparticles were investigated by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) and UV–Vis diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS) techniques. In the prepared nanoparticles, Cu+2 ions are incorporated into the ZnS lattice. The nanoparticles have absorption edges at visible light region. The SEM images demonstrate that size of the nanoparticles decreases with Cu+2 content. To achieve maximum degradation efficiency, the influence of various operational parameters such as mole fraction of Cu+2 ions, ultrasonic irradiation time, catalyst weight, calcination temperature, concentration of methylene blue (MB) and pH of solution on the degradation rate constant was investigated under visible light irradiation and the results discussed. It was found that the degradation reaction followed pseudo first-order kinetics. The nanoparticles with 0.015 mole fraction of Cu+2 ions exhibit highest activity among the prepared samples.

Graphical Abstract

Ultrasonic-assisted Method for Preparation of Cu-doped ZnS Nanoparticles in Water as a Highly Efficient Visible Light Photocatalyst

Keywords

Main Subjects


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[2] S. Wang, H. Li, S. Xie, S. Liu, L. Xu, Chemosphere 65 (2006) 82.

[3] P.P. Selvam, S. Preethi, P. Basakaralingam, N. Thinakaran, A. Sivasamy, S. Sivanesan, J. Hazard. Mater. 155 (2008) 39.

[4] P.R. Gogate, A.B. Pandit, Adv. Environ. Res. 8 (2004) 501.

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[6] M.P. Reddy, A. Venugopal, M. Subrahmanyam, Appl. Catal. B: Environ. 69 (2006) 164.

[7] N. Sobana, M. Muruganandam, M. Swaminathan, Catal. Commun. 9 (2008) 262.

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[9] S.J. Teichner, J. Porous Mater. 15 (2008) 311.

[10] R. Yuan, R. Guan, W. Shen, J. Zheng, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 282 (2005) 87.

[11] T. Tachikawa, M. Fujitsuka, T. Majima, J. Phys. Chem. C 111 (2007) 5259.

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[22] P. Yang, C. Song, M. Lu, G. Zhou, Z. Yang, D. Xu, D. Yuan, J. Phys. Chem. Solids 63 (2002) 639.

[23] W.Q. Peng, G.W. Cong, S.C. Qu, Z.G. Wang, Optical Mater. 29 (2006) 313.

[24] S. Sambasivam, B. Sathyaseelan, D.R. Reddy, B.K. Reddy, C.K. Jayasankar, Spectrochim. Acta A: Mol. Biomolec. Spect. 71 (2008) 1503.

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[49] S. Chakrabarti, B.K. Dutta, J. Hazard. Mater. B 112 (2004) 269.

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[52] L.S. Zhang, K.H. Wong, H.Y. Yip, C. Hu, J.C. Yu, C.Y. Chan, P.K. Wong, Environ. Sci. Technol. 44

(2010) 1392.

[53] G.T. Li, K.H. Wong, X.W. Zhang, C. Hu, J.C. Yu, R.C.Y. Cha

[1] O. Ozdemir, B. Armagan, M. Turan, M.S. Celik, Dyes Pigments 62 (2004) 49.

[2] S. Wang, H. Li, S. Xie, S. Liu, L. Xu, Chemosphere 65 (2006) 82.

[3] P.P. Selvam, S. Preethi, P. Basakaralingam, N. Thinakaran, A. Sivasamy, S. Sivanesan, J. Hazard. Mater. 155 (2008) 39.

[4] P.R. Gogate, A.B. Pandit, Adv. Environ. Res. 8 (2004) 501.

[5] K. Kabra, R. Chaudhary, R.L. Sawhney, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 43 (2004) 7683.

[6] M.P. Reddy, A. Venugopal, M. Subrahmanyam, Appl. Catal. B: Environ. 69 (2006) 164.

[7] N. Sobana, M. Muruganandam, M. Swaminathan, Catal. Commun. 9 (2008) 262.

[8] C.-H. Wu, J.-M. Chern, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 45 (2006) 6450.

[9] S.J. Teichner, J. Porous Mater. 15 (2008) 311.

[10] R. Yuan, R. Guan, W. Shen, J. Zheng, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 282 (2005) 87.

[11] T. Tachikawa, M. Fujitsuka, T. Majima, J. Phys. Chem. C 111 (2007) 5259.

[12] N. Dubey, S.S. Rayalu, N.K. Labhsetwar, S. Devotta, Int. J. Hydrogen Energy 33 (2008) 5958.

[13] W. Su, J. Chen, L. Wu, X. Wang, X. Fu, Appl. Catal. B: Envir. 77 (2008) 264.

[14] J. Sun, L. Qiao, S. Sun, G. Wang, J. Hazard. Mater. 155 (2008) 312.

[15] N. Dubey, S.S. Rayalu, N.K. Labhsetwar, S. Devotta, Int. J. Hydrogen Energy 33 (2008) 5958.

[16] L.-C. Chen, Y.-J. Tu, Y.-S. Wang, R.-S. Kan, C.-M. Huang, J. Photochem. Photobiol. A: Chem. 199 (2008) 170.

[17] H. Xia, H. Zhuang, T. Zhang, D. Xiao, Mater. Lett. 62 (2008) 1126.

[18] A. Kudo, M. Sekizawa, Catal. Lett. 58 (1999) 241.

[19] A. Kudo, M. Sekizawa, Chem. Commun. (2000) 1371.

[20] T. Arai, S.-I. Senda, Y. Sato, H. Takahashi, K. Shinoda, B. Jeyadevan, K. Tohji, Chem. Mater. 20 (2008) 1997.

[21] M. Wang, L. Sun, X. Fu, C. Liao, C. Yan, Solid State Commun. 115 (2000) 493.

[22] P. Yang, C. Song, M. Lu, G. Zhou, Z. Yang, D. Xu, D. Yuan, J. Phys. Chem. Solids 63 (2002) 639.

[23] W.Q. Peng, G.W. Cong, S.C. Qu, Z.G. Wang, Optical Mater. 29 (2006) 313.

[24] S. Sambasivam, B. Sathyaseelan, D.R. Reddy, B.K. Reddy, C.K. Jayasankar, Spectrochim. Acta A: Mol. Biomolec. Spect. 71 (2008) 1503.

[25] S.H. Mohamed, J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 43 (2010) 35406.

[26] H.R. Pouretedal, A. Norozi, M.H. Keshavarz, A. Semnani, J. Hazard. Mater. 162 (2009) 674.

[27] S. Naghiloo, A. Habibi-Yangjeh, M. Behboudnia, Appl. Surf. Sci. 257 (2011) 2361.

[28] Z. Poormohammadi-Ahandani, A. Habibi-Yangjeh, Desalination 271 (2011) 273.

[29] K.S. Suslick, S.B. Choe, A.A. Cichowals, M.W. Grinstaff, Nature 353 (1991) 414.

[30] G.J. Price, Current Trends in Sonochemistry, Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge, 1992.

[31] V.G. Pol, A. Gedanken, J. Chem. Mater. 15 (2003) 1111.

[32] T. Gao, Q.H. Li, T.H. Wang, Chem. Mater. 17 (2005) 887.

[33] X. Hou, F. Zhou, Y. Sun, W. Liu, Mater. Lett. 61 (2007) 1789.

[34] C. Yu, M. Yu, C. Li, X. Liu, J. Yang, P. Yang, J. Lin, J. Solid State Chem.182 (2009) 339.

[35] M. Shang, W. Wang, L. Zhou, S. Sun, W. Yin, J. Hazard. Mater. 172 (2009) 338.

[36] F. Jafari-Zare, A. Habibi-Yangjeh, Chin. J. Chem. 28 (2010) 349.

[37] W. Zhang, Z. Zhong, Y. Wang, R. Xu, J. Phys. Chem. C 112 (2008) 17635.

[38] B.D Cullity, Elements of X-ray diffraction, 2nd ed., London: Addision Wesley, 1978.

[39] L. Wang, L. Chang, B. Zhao, Z. Yuan, G. Shao, W. Zheng, Inorg. Chem. 47 (2008) 1443.

[40] J. Tang, Z. Zou, J. Ye, Chem. Mater. 16 (2004) 1644.

[41] M. Oztas, M. Bedir, A.N. Yazici, E.V. Kafadar, H. Toktamıs, Physica B 381 (2006) 40.

[42] M.A. Fox, M.T. Dulay, Chem. Rev. 93 (1993) 341.

[43] W. Zhang, Z. Zhong, Y. Wang, R. Xu, J. Phys. Chem. C 112 (2008) 17635.

[44] S. Sakthivel, B. Neppolian, M.V. Shankar, B. Arabindoo, M. Palanichamy, V. Murugesan, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 77 (2003) 65.

[45] M.A. Behnajady, N. Modirshahla, R. Hamzavi, J. Hazard. Mater. B 133 (2006) 226.

[46] N. Daneshvar, D. Salari, A.R. Khataee, J. Photochem. Photobiol. A: Chem. 157 (2003) 111.

[47] C.-C. Wang, C.-K. Lee, M.-D. Lyu, L.-C. Juang, Dyes Pigments 76 (2008) 817.

[48] M.V. Shankar, B. Neppolian, S. Sakthivel, M. Banumathi Arabindoo, V. Palanichamy, Murugesan: Ind. J. Eng. Mater. Sci. 8 (2001) 104.

[49] S. Chakrabarti, B.K. Dutta, J. Hazard. Mater. B 112 (2004) 269.

[50] M.V. Shankar, S. Anandan, N. Venkatachalam, B. Arabindoo, V. Murugesan, J. Chem. Technol. Biotechnol. 79 (2004) 1279.

[51] N. Daneshvar, D. Salari, A.R. Khataee, J. Photochem. Photobiol. A: Chem. 162 (2004) 317.

[52] L.S. Zhang, K.H. Wong, H.Y. Yip, C. Hu, J.C. Yu, C.Y. Chan, P.K. Wong, Environ. Sci. Technol. 44 (2010) 1392.

[53] G.T. Li, K.H. Wong, X.W. Zhang, C. Hu, J.C. Yu, R.C.Y. Cha

[1] O. Ozdemir, B. Armagan, M. Turan, M.S. Celik, Dyes Pigments 62 (2004) 49.

[2] S. Wang, H. Li, S. Xie, S. Liu, L. Xu, Chemosphere 65 (2006) 82.

[3] P.P. Selvam, S. Preethi, P. Basakaralingam, N. Thinakaran, A. Sivasamy, S. Sivanesan, J. Hazard. Mater. 155 (2008) 39.

[4] P.R. Gogate, A.B. Pandit, Adv. Environ. Res. 8 (2004) 501.

[5] K. Kabra, R. Chaudhary, R.L. Sawhney, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 43 (2004) 7683.

[6] M.P. Reddy, A. Venugopal, M. Subrahmanyam, Appl. Catal. B: Environ. 69 (2006) 164.

[7] N. Sobana, M. Muruganandam, M. Swaminathan, Catal. Commun. 9 (2008) 262.

[8] C.-H. Wu, J.-M. Chern, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 45 (2006) 6450.

[9] S.J. Teichner, J. Porous Mater. 15 (2008) 311.

[10] R. Yuan, R. Guan, W. Shen, J. Zheng, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 282 (2005) 87.

[11] T. Tachikawa, M. Fujitsuka, T. Majima, J. Phys. Chem. C 111 (2007) 5259.

[12] N. Dubey, S.S. Rayalu, N.K. Labhsetwar, S. Devotta, Int. J. Hydrogen Energy 33 (2008) 5958.

[13] W. Su, J. Chen, L. Wu, X. Wang, X. Fu, Appl. Catal. B: Envir. 77 (2008) 264.

[14] J. Sun, L. Qiao, S. Sun, G. Wang, J. Hazard. Mater. 155 (2008) 312.

[15] N. Dubey, S.S. Rayalu, N.K. Labhsetwar, S. Devotta, Int. J. Hydrogen Energy 33 (2008) 5958.

[16] L.-C. Chen, Y.-J. Tu, Y.-S. Wang, R.-S. Kan, C.-M. Huang, J. Photochem. Photobiol. A: Chem. 199 (2008) 170.

[17] H. Xia, H. Zhuang, T. Zhang, D. Xiao, Mater. Lett. 62 (2008) 1126.

[18] A. Kudo, M. Sekizawa, Catal. Lett. 58 (1999) 241.

[19] A. Kudo, M. Sekizawa, Chem. Commun. (2000) 1371.

[20] T. Arai, S.-I. Senda, Y. Sato, H. Takahashi, K. Shinoda, B. Jeyadevan, K. Tohji, Chem. Mater. 20 (2008) 1997.

[21] M. Wang, L. Sun, X. Fu, C. Liao, C. Yan, Solid State Commun. 115 (2000) 493.

[22] P. Yang, C. Song, M. Lu, G. Zhou, Z. Yang, D. Xu, D. Yuan, J. Phys. Chem. Solids 63 (2002) 639.

[23] W.Q. Peng, G.W. Cong, S.C. Qu, Z.G. Wang, Optical Mater. 29 (2006) 313.

[24] S. Sambasivam, B. Sathyaseelan, D.R. Reddy, B.K. Reddy, C.K. Jayasankar, Spectrochim. Acta A: Mol. Biomolec. Spect. 71 (2008) 1503.

[25] S.H. Mohamed, J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 43 (2010) 35406.

[26] H.R. Pouretedal, A. Norozi, M.H. Keshavarz, A. Semnani, J. Hazard. Mater. 162 (2009) 674.

[27] S. Naghiloo, A. Habibi-Yangjeh, M. Behboudnia, Appl. Surf. Sci. 257 (2011) 2361.

[28] Z. Poormohammadi-Ahandani, A. Habibi-Yangjeh, Desalination 271 (2011) 273.

[29] K.S. Suslick, S.B. Choe, A.A. Cichowals, M.W. Grinstaff, Nature 353 (1991) 414.

[30] G.J. Price, Current Trends in Sonochemistry, Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge, 1992.

[31] V.G. Pol, A. Gedanken, J. Chem. Mater. 15 (2003) 1111.

[32] T. Gao, Q.H. Li, T.H. Wang, Chem. Mater. 17 (2005) 887.

[33] X. Hou, F. Zhou, Y. Sun, W. Liu, Mater. Lett. 61 (2007) 1789.

[34] C. Yu, M. Yu, C. Li, X. Liu, J. Yang, P. Yang, J. Lin, J. Solid State Chem.182 (2009) 339.

[35] M. Shang, W. Wang, L. Zhou, S. Sun, W. Yin, J. Hazard. Mater. 172 (2009) 338.

[36] F. Jafari-Zare, A. Habibi-Yangjeh, Chin. J. Chem. 28 (2010) 349.

[37] W. Zhang, Z. Zhong, Y. Wang, R. Xu, J. Phys. Chem. C 112 (2008) 17635.

[38] B.D Cullity, Elements of X-ray diffraction, 2nd ed., London: Addision Wesley, 1978.

[39] L. Wang, L. Chang, B. Zhao, Z. Yuan, G. Shao, W. Zheng, Inorg. Chem. 47 (2008) 1443.

[40] J. Tang, Z. Zou, J. Ye, Chem. Mater. 16 (2004) 1644.

[41] M. Oztas, M. Bedir, A.N. Yazici, E.V. Kafadar, H. Toktamıs, Physica B 381 (2006) 40.

[42] M.A. Fox, M.T. Dulay, Chem. Rev. 93 (1993) 341.

[43] W. Zhang, Z. Zhong, Y. Wang, R. Xu, J. Phys. Chem. C 112 (2008) 17635.

[44] S. Sakthivel, B. Neppolian, M.V. Shankar, B. Arabindoo, M. Palanichamy, V. Murugesan, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 77 (2003) 65.

[45] M.A. Behnajady, N. Modirshahla, R. Hamzavi, J. Hazard. Mater. B 133 (2006) 226.

[46] N. Daneshvar, D. Salari, A.R. Khataee, J. Photochem. Photobiol. A: Chem. 157 (2003) 111.

[47] C.-C. Wang, C.-K. Lee, M.-D. Lyu, L.-C. Juang, Dyes Pigments 76 (2008) 817.

[48] M.V. Shankar, B. Neppolian, S. Sakthivel, M. Banumathi Arabindoo, V. Palanichamy, Murugesan: Ind. J. Eng. Mater. Sci. 8 (2001) 104.

[49] S. Chakrabarti, B.K. Dutta, J. Hazard. Mater. B 112 (2004) 269.

[50] M.V. Shankar, S. Anandan, N. Venkatachalam, B. Arabindoo, V. Murugesan, J. Chem. Technol. Biotechnol. 79 (2004) 1279.

[51] N. Daneshvar, D. Salari, A.R. Khataee, J. Photochem. Photobiol. A: Chem. 162 (2004) 317.

[52] L.S. Zhang, K.H. Wong, H.Y. Yip, C. Hu, J.C. Yu, C.Y. Chan, P.K. Wong, Environ. Sci. Technol. 44 (2010) 1392.

[53] G.T. Li, K.H. Wong, X.W. Zhang, C. Hu, J.C. Yu, R.C.Y. Chan, P.K. Wong, Chemosphere 76 (2009)
1185.