Functionalized Banana Stalk for Lumefantrine Drug Removal

Document Type : Regular Article

Authors

1 Department of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, P.M.B. 4000, Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria

2 Department of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, P.M.B. 4000, Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria. Department of Physical Sciences, Industrial Chemistry Programme, Landmark University, Omu-Aran, Nigeria

10.22036/pcr.2021.261506.1865

Abstract

Functionalized banana stalk (BSAC) was investigated as a potential adsorbent in removing a commonly used pharmaceutical antimalaria drug, Lumefantrine (LUMF). The raw banana stalk was chemically treated with orthophosphoric acid to enhance its adsorptive properties. The effect of LUMF initial concentration, temperature, solution pH, and contact time on the adsorption process was studied using the batch equilibrium process. The surface characteristics of the prepared adsorbent were investigated using SEM, FTIR, proximate analysis, and the Boehm titration techniques. The FTIR spectra showed notable peaks that are responsible for the adsorptive uptake of LUMF. The micrograph from the SEM showed well-developed pores which can be attributed to the effect of the acid treatment, and results from the proximate analysis showed 73.92% carbon content which is a remarkable percentage for a favorable uptake. The sips isotherm model best fitted the experimental data with an R2 = 1, and a maximum adsorption capacity of 102.1 mg/g. The pseudo-second-order kinetic model best explains the kinetics of adsorption of LUMF onto BSAC with R2 values ranging from 0.9845-0.9997. Thermodynamic studies suggest that LUMF uptake by BSAC is endothermic, spontaneous, and thermodynamically favored. BSAC was found to be effective in removing LUMF from aqueous solutions.

Graphical Abstract

Functionalized Banana Stalk for Lumefantrine Drug Removal

Keywords